Heritage of Indian Metallurgy – Volume 5 – Copper

Copper is known to be one of the first elements to be discovered in ancient metallurgy and was extensively used over time to create alloys with other metals for achieving various properties to be used for multiple applications.

This red-brown metal has its origins as early as fifth millennium BC from the Harappan era. It was sourced extensively from the Khetri belt of present-day Rajasthan which till date remains the richest source of Copper available in South-East Asia. It was known to be a popular metal used for various applications due to its characteristics of not rusting or decaying, making it survive indefinitely.

This book discusses the various methods of extraction of Copper over the periods and casting using multiple techniques to be used for making artefacts, tools and ornaments. It was also used for commercial applications like trade currencies and recording royal records on copper-plate grants (tamra-patra).

At numerous excavating sites across North-West India, Copper tools such as flat axes, spearheads, chisels, punches and nails have been obtained. Also, ornaments such as pendants, beads, rings and bangles have been found suggesting the existence of Chalcolithic communities who were fully engaged in the manufacture of various copper objects.

Digital version coming soon.