Completed Projects

Books on Yogashastra:

1. Yoga Kosha

In today’s world, there is an opportunity to enhance the teaching and dissemination of the theoretical foundations of Yoga in a more comprehensive and accessible manner. While the original Yoga texts are written in Sanskrit, there is a decline in the number of individuals proficient in this ancient language. However, we can overcome this challenge by embracing new methods of study and sharing knowledge.

To address this issue, a valuable resource has been developed in both physical print and searchable e-format. This work aims to provide a positive solution by offering authentic meanings and exploring the etymology of the technical terms used in Yoga Śāstra.

Moreover, it incorporates extensive references from various accepted authorities, validating and substantiating the explanations provided.

2. Yogabhysayoga

Yogābhyāsayoga, written by Gorakṣanātha, the founder of Haṭhayoga, is a valuable contribution to the Nātha tradition of Indian Yoga that originated in the Northern parts of India. This previously unpublished manuscript, written on handmade paper, has now been meticulously edited, translated into English, and supplemented with notes and appendices.

Yogābhyāsayoga is a collection of Sanskrit verses that delve into various aspects of the Aṣṭānga-Yoga system, which highlights the detailed path that spiritual seekers must follow to achieve fulfillment. This book provides a comprehensive explanation of the work, as well as explores the connections between Yoga and Vedānta systems of philosophy, shedding light on the foundational principles and theories of Yoga.

With its critical edition, English translation, and accompanying notes, it serves as a guide for aspirants to delve deeper into the profound truths of the Yogic path.

3. An overview of the Yoga Upanishads and their Contribution to Yoga

The Yoga Upaniṣads consist of a collection of approximately twenty lesser-known Upaniṣads that focus specifically on the philosophy and practice of Yoga. These Upaniṣads delve into various aspects of methodology, meditation, and philosophical concepts.

This work elucidates their philosophical perspectives on specific topics such as the world, the Atman, and other aspects, while also providing a comparative analysis with other streams of knowledge found in the Upaniṣads.

By offering this valuable insight, it guides aspirants on the path towards fulfillment and spiritual growth.

4. Yoga in the Purana's

Pataῆjali’s Yogasūtra is widely regarded as the foundational text of the Yoga school of thought. However, there are numerous other Indian texts that have delved into various aspects of yoga, including breathing techniques, sensory control, physical exercises, meditation, mind concentration, salvation, and attaining union with the Supreme Brahman.

This comprehensive work consists of multiple volumes, with each volume exploring the philosophy of yoga as described in nine different Puranas. The first volume draws information from Puranas such as ŚrīmadbhāgavataPurāṇa, Agni Purāṇa, ViṣṇuPurāṇa, MārkaṇḍeyaPurāṇa, GaruḍaPurāṇa, Padma Purāṇa, BrahmavaivartaPurāṇa, BrahmāṇḍaPurāṇa, and Brahma Purāṇa. The second volume covers the remaining Puranas.

Additionally, texts such as Yoga Upaniṣads and YogasūtraBhāṣya by Vedavyāsa, as well as Vedānta texts like Brahmasūtra and Bhagavadgīta, are referred to for comparative analysis and study.

5. Yoga in Mahabharata

The Mahabharata holds the distinction of being one of the largest encyclopedic texts ever authored, encompassing an immense range of topics related to the Indian tradition. Within its vast expanse, the philosophy of yoga finds extensive and authentic delineation.

This particular Volume delves into the information available within the Mahabharata regarding the philosophy of yoga, providing a comprehensive exploration of this subject matter.

6. Hatha-Yoga-Pradipika

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika, also known as Light on Hatha Yoga, is a renowned Sanskrit manual on hatha yoga that dates back to the fifteenth century. It was written by Svatmarama, who traces the teachings’ lineage back to Matsyendranath of the Nathas.

In this edition, the text has undergone critical editing and has been translated into English, accompanied by vibrant illustrations, comprehensive notes, and informative appendices.


1. Upavasa - Fasting

This book sheds light on the profound significance of Fasting in the modern scientific world. It explores specific experiments conducted in recent times, wherein Fasting has been utilized to effectively address various diseases, including lifestyle and chronic illnesses, as well as metabolic regulation.

Notably, experiments have been carried out employing diverse Fasting methods to aid in weight reduction for individuals struggling with obesity. The Naturopathy System has extensively embraced and practiced various forms of Fasting for purposes such as detoxification and treating a range of ailments, with detailed insights provided within this book.

Additionally, the book presents perspectives on Fasting practices as recommended in ancient texts like Dharmaśāstra and as observed by elderly individuals in India. It further delves into how Fasting is highlighted in various Purāṇas, forming an integral part of spiritual austerity that ultimately guides aspirants on the path of spiritual evolution.

2. Jnanasvatthah

An extensive knowledge structure encompassing the entirety of Traditional Knowledge, unified under one comprehensive platform:

• The objective is to make traditional texts and media accessible to both the general public and experts alike.
• The goal is to create a repository that encompasses diverse content from various languages and domains of traditional knowledge.
• Emphasis is placed on capturing knowledge from different perspectives across languages.
• Epistemology serves as the foundation for organizing the knowledge within the structure.
• Experts are empowered to connect and link to relevant knowledge through structures like ontology.
• A crowdsourcing-based framework is being developed to capture, tag, and curate content.
• Additionally, a framework is being designed to facilitate the creation of innovative applications using this content.
• The underlying technological support will feature a flexible and extensible architecture.
• Multi-dimensional information access and search mechanisms are being crafted to ensure efficient exploration of the knowledge within the structure.

3. Sanskrit learning series

Samskriti Foundation has developed a series of self-teaching packages that cover essential aspects of Sanskrit. These packages are available in the form of web-apps and printed books.

Included within these resources are 12 crucial works that provide comprehensive knowledge of various facets of Sanskrit, such as the language itself, Sanskrit literature, and fundamental aspects of Sanskrit grammar.

Acquiring a deep understanding of these works is vital for gaining accurate insights into the obligatory features of Sanskrit language and literature. These self-teaching packages serve as indispensable tools for individuals seeking to delve into the rich world of Sanskrit and expand their knowledge base.


In the past, despite the widespread acknowledgment of traditional Indians’ expertise in various scientific fields, there was no organized effort to systematically compile and document their contributions to subjects like Physics and mathematics.

This book fills that void by offering a concise yet comprehensive overview of the topic. With 30 colorful chapters, it presents a remarkable summary of the subject, leaving ample room for further research with an open-minded approach to validate the theories and solutions found in traditional Sanskrit works.

Esteemed scholars have praised this pioneering work, making it a unique and valuable documentation of the Indian Knowledge Systems’ contributions to contemporary science and technology.

5. Melkote- An Introduction

Our ancient culture has withstood the test of time, spanning across countless millennia. One integral aspect of our tradition is the visualization and worship of God in diverse forms. We firmly believe that God manifests in different forms at sacred centers, responding to the aspirations of devotees. Among these revered pilgrimage destinations, Melukote holds a prominent position.

Situated in the southern Indian state of Karnataka, Melukote boasts a rich tapestry of mythological, historical, and cultural heritage. The purpose of this booklet is to provide readers with an overview of the significant facets of this divine center. By offering this insight, we aim to provide a proper perspective of the place, allowing visitors to Melukote to appreciate and embrace these aspects fully.

6. Sri Vaishnava Festivals and Auspicious Days

The Srivaisnava tradition holds a vital and distinct characteristic: the belief that every action we undertake is a service to God and is devoted to Him. This exceptional sentiment sets this tradition apart. Moreover, the reverence shown to devotees, known as bhagavata-s, elevates the practice even further, making it truly unique.

Being an integral part of the broader Indian spiritual tradition, practicing Srivaisnava is a source of pride and fulfilment. It emphasizes the deep connection between our actions and devotion to the Divine, enriching our spiritual journey.

7. Sri Ramanuja – Life & Philosophy

Throughout history, numerous philosophers have emerged, yet the appearance of a mystic philosopher is a truly extraordinary occurrence. Mysticism and philosophy often seem at odds, with one being rooted in pure emotion and the other in pure logic. However, Sri Ramanuja accomplished something remarkable by bridging the gap between the intellectual and the emotional, thereby formulating a universal philosophy. His compositions beautifully blend a scholarly mind with a poetic heart.

Additionally, Ramanuja’s endeavors in social reform exemplify his deep compassion for the oppressed. Recognizing that everything that exists and will exist is simply a manifestation of the Lord, he lived fearlessly. To him, liberation and happiness were intertwined, encompassing all aspects of human life, including the physical, social, cultural, mental, and spiritual realms.

He encouraged others to perceive the Divine within humanity and recognize the presence of humanity within the Divine. Ramanuja’s teachings and actions resonated with a profound understanding of the interconnectedness between the divine and human existence.

8. Fundamentals of Visistadvaita

For centuries, India has been revered as a land abundant in virtue and righteousness. Its people inherit a legacy steeped in education, a relentless quest for knowledge, deep devotion to God, and the practice of rituals that bring immense benefits in this life and the hereafter.

Unfortunately, recent times have witnessed the influx of undesirable influences and foreign invasions, both cultural and physical, which have caused a significant decline in human values.

As a consequence, people have forsaken the once-beneficial and virtuous rituals, resulting in a state of chaos in various aspects of human existence, particularly in religious and spiritual realms.

9. Gheranda Samhita

The Gheranda Samhita (Gheranda’s collection), is a comprehensive Sanskrit text on Yogatha, encompassing all facets related to the Yoga Shastra.

This treatise is considered one of the most encyclopedic works on yoga, comprising over 400 verses divided into approximately 7 chapters.

In this edition, the text has undergone meticulous editing and translation into English, accompanied by vivid illustrations in multiple colors, insightful notes, and helpful appendices.

10. Shiva Samhita

The Shiva Samhita is a Sanskrit text dedicated to the practice of yoga, believed to be authored by an unknown writer. It presents a dialogue between Lord Shiva and his consort Parvati, where Shiva imparts wisdom on yoga.

The chapters, excluding the first one, probe into topics such as the significance of a guru (teacher) for a student, various asanas (poses), mudras (gestures), and siddhis (attainable powers) through yoga and tantra.

This edition offers a meticulously edited and translated version of the text in English, enhanced with vibrant illustrations, informative notes, and supplementary appendices.

11. Shree Madbhagavata

Intro Bhagavata: Srimad Bhagavatam (Kannada version)
Pandit Sridevashikhamani Alasingaracharya’s Kannada rendition of Srimad Bhagavatam retains the unique features specified by the revered Acharya himself, as mentioned in the introductory remarks. Notably, this Kannada version was initially published in a Madras (now Chennai) newspaper and later transformed into a book form by Srivenkateswara Publishers, spanning around nine volumes, accompanied by available illustrations at that time.

Over time, the same publisher released multiple editions, some with pictures and others without. Now, with the generous support of Shri E S P Das Vidyapratisthan, this Kannada version is being republished in an even improved format.

Mahabharata: Intro Mahabharata
Pandit Devashikhamani Alasingaracharya’s unparalleled contributions to Kannada literature are truly remarkable. As one of the eminent writers of the 20th century, Acharya’s dedication to the field is unmatched. With a profound command over both Sanskrit and Kannada languages, he authored notable works such as Srimad Ramayana, Srimad Bhagavata, and Sriman Mahabharata in Kannada.

His translations, preserving the essence of each Sanskrit “Shloka” in Kannada, are regarded as the pinnacle of literary achievement, akin to the majestic ‘Meru Parvata’ in the realm of translation literature. To truly appreciate Alasingaracharya’s invaluable contributions to our Kannada literary treasure, one must delve into his original works alongside their translated counterparts.

12. Shree Madvalmiki Ramayana

Intro Ramayana
Sri Ramayana and Mahabharata, the twin epics, are like the two eyes of India, symbolizing its rich cultural heritage. The remarkable story of Sita, who selflessly endured imprisonment for the liberation of others, holds a place of unparalleled significance in history.

The timeless tale of Ramayana will continue to resonate as long as majestic mountains and flowing rivers exist, fulfilling the wish of Valmiki Maharshi, the divine author of this epic masterpiece. With the divine grace of Chaturmukha Brahman, the words flowed effortlessly through Valmiki Maharshi, akin to a celestial stream of nectar.

To capture the essence of this “adi kavya” (original epic), narrating the profound depths of Sri Ramayana in a few words becomes an insurmountable challenge. However, this Kannada version of Sri Ramayana, crafted by the revered Pandit Sridevashikhamani Alasingaracharya, endeavors to satiate the thirst of devoted readers seeking the poetic and rejuvenating “rasa” (essence) of this enchanting epic.

13. 64 Arts of India

For centuries, Indian art has been a beacon of creativity and cultural diversity, serving as a custodian of ancient traditions and societal values. It encompasses a wide spectrum of art forms, including dance, music, literature, and architecture, each reflecting the vibrant heritage and profound history of India. These art forms transcend borders and languages, acting as a universal language that connects people across time and space, inspiring countless generations.

However, with the advent of modernization, some of these traditional arts have experienced a decline. Fortunately, there is now a renewed interest in reviving and preserving them, ensuring that future generations can appreciate and cherish this invaluable cultural legacy.

The legend of Lord Krishna’s mastery of the 64 arts stands as evidence to the significance of education and knowledge in Indian culture. It highlights the importance of nurturing exceptional talents and cultivating them to their fullest potential. The Samskrithi Foundation plays a pivotal role in this endeavour, with its emphasis on research and documentation.

Through meticulous study of ancient texts and collaborations with renowned scholars and artists, the foundation has unearthed valuable insights into these art forms and their historical significance. The 64 Arts represent an integral part of Indian culture, offering a comprehensive understanding of the world and its diverse dimensions.

As there is a growing interest in rediscovering and practicing these age-old arts, we have an extraordinary opportunity to reconnect with our cultural heritage, delve deeper into our own identities, and safeguard the preservation of this invaluable legacy for generations to come.

14. Saṃskṛta Kavi-Kāvyā Kadambakam

“Saṃskṛta Kavi-Kāvyā Kadambakam: A Comprehensive account of the life and works of Celebrated Sanskrit Poets of India” is a remarkable project that serves as a comprehensive guide to the world of Sanskrit literature.

The project, available in both book and online portal formats, offers a meticulous compilation of information on 100 celebrated Sanskrit poets, providing a valuable resource for scholars, students, and enthusiasts alike. The uniform template used for presenting information on each poet makes navigation and exploration of this rich cultural history accessible and engaging.

The project’s objective is to bridge the gap in previous attempts to catalogue Classical Sanskrit literature by providing a comprehensive and inclusive account of the poets and their contributions. By presenting the poets in chronological order and providing detailed information on their life, works, and contributions to Sanskrit literature, this project offers a deep understanding of the evolution and significance of this ancient art form.

“Saṃskṛta Kavi-Kāvyā Kadambakam” is a monumental achievement that not only preserves and showcases the timeless beauty of Sanskrit literature but also serves as a platform for further exploration and appreciation of this profound literary tradition.

15. Bhāratīya Upavāna Vijn'yānam

In today’s context, the book “Bhāratīya Upavāna Vijn’yānam” holds significant importance as it uncovers the wisdom found in ancient texts like Upavanavinōda and Śivatatva ratnākara. These texts provide valuable insights into horticultural practices in ancient, medieval, and modern India.

By exploring the teachings of Upavanavinōda, the book offers valuable knowledge on soil selection, plant classification, and the intricate relationship between plants and their environment. This understanding is crucial for promoting sustainable practices and environmental conservation in contemporary horticulture.

By learning from traditional methods of nourishing plants and taking care of them, modern practitioners can improve the sustainability and productivity of their horticultural endeavors, drawing from the timeless wisdom encapsulated in Upavanavinōda.

Furthermore, “Bhāratīya Upavāna Vijn’yānam” delves into the insights provided by Śivatatva ratnākara, shedding light on plant diseases and the use of fertilizers. These aspects hold immense relevance in modern horticulture, especially with growing concerns about the impact of chemical inputs on human health and the environment.

The book explores natural remedies and organic approaches to tackle plant diseases, emphasizing the importance of sustainable and eco-friendly practices. It also promotes the use of plant-based treatments and sustainable fertilization methods, encouraging practitioners to adopt approaches that are healthier for both the environment and consumers.

By drawing from the teachings of Śivatatva ratnākara, the book equips horticulturists with valuable knowledge that can help them navigate the challenges of plant health and fertility in a more sustainable and responsible manner.

16. Philosophy of Education: Bhāratīya-śikṣaṇa-darśanaṁ- Volume I

The book “Philosophy of Education: Bhāratīya-śikṣaṇa-darśanaṁ- Volume I” presents a profound exploration of the wisdom contained in the Vedas and Upaniṣads and its relevance to education. By delving into these ancient texts, the book aims to bridge the gap between Western-oriented educational philosophies and the indigenous educational needs of India.

It offers a comprehensive framework that aligns with the Indian viewpoint on education, encompassing topics such as knowledge, self-realization, ethics, and holistic growth. This valuable contribution provides educators and students with profound insights and guidance, inviting a paradigm shift in the way education is approached in India.

The compilation of the insights from the Vedas and Upaniṣads in this book represents a culmination of rigorous research, scholarly expertise, and deep understanding. It serves as an invaluable resource for those interested in exploring the rich heritage of Vedic and classical Sanskrit literature and its profound implications for education.

By presenting these insights, the Samskriti Foundation aims to contribute to a broader understanding of the philosophy of education and inspire further scholarly discussions and inquiries in this field. The book’s comprehensive nature and scholarly approach make it a significant reference and a catalyst for the integration of culturally relevant educational philosophies in the Indian context.

Trans-Disciplinary Books

1. Computer Science- Natural Language Processing (NLP)

During the 1980s, when NLP (Natural Language Processing) was still in its infancy, esteemed computer scientists such as Rig Bricks put forth the idea that Sanskrit could be the ideal language for facilitating seamless human-computer interaction, unlike artificial languages such as Java, J2E, and C++. Despite this proposition, not many organizations dedicated themselves to in-depth research on the subject. However, Professor M.A. Lakshmithathachar, with the support of the Samskriti Foundation (R), took the lead in pioneering several initiatives and developing software programs that prove invaluable in various indispensable aspects essential for advanced NLP implementation.

1)  Semusi (Sanskrit noun generation and analysis)

Subanta module generation encompasses the following features:

  • It comprises a lexicon of words from Amarakosa, containing 9,000 Subanta bases.
  • This lexicon has the capability to generate over 216,000 case-inflected forms.
  • It generates forms in 7+1 vibhakti (cases) and 3 vachana (numbers), resulting in 24 forms per base. Users can also choose specific forms from the available Subanta bases.
  • It has the ability to generate multiple forms if required.
  • The module can analyze the forms of any given case-inflected form of the Subanta base stored in the database.
  • It can identify the anta (ending), linga (gender), and pratipadika (base) of the analyzed form.
  • The module provides multiple identifications for a given form.

2)  Prajna  (Sanskrit verb generation and analysis)

Tiganta module generation offers the following functionalities:

  • It includes a database containing 400 carefully selected and compiled important roots from various Dhatukosas.
  • The module handles Kevalatinanta (ordinary verbal form), Nijanta (Causative), and Sannanta (Desiderative) forms.
  • It supports Kartari (Active), Karmani (Passive), and Bhava (Impersonal) voices.
  • The module handles 10 Lakaras, including 6 tenses and 4 moods.
  • It generates all forms, typically consisting of 9 forms, for 3 Purusas (persons) and three vachanas (numbers). Users can also choose to generate specific forms.
  • It can analyze the forms of any given root from the lexicon.
  • The module identifies the Gana, Padi, Karma, It, Mode, Voice, Lakara, Purusa, and Vachana of the analyzed form.
  • Multiple identifications are displayed for a given form.

3)   Cetana (Krdanta module generation and Analysis)

The module for Krdanta generation offers the following features:

  • It generates 11 types of Krdanta forms and provides options to generate them in 7+1 cases and 3 numbers or in any selected case and number. The module is capable of generating more than 300,000 forms with case-inflected variations.
  • The Krdanta forms handled include Tavya, Aniyar, and Ya in Vidhyartha, Kta and in Bhavishyat, and Tumun and Ktva in Krdavyaya.
  • It can analyze the forms of any given Krdanta form based on the selected roots.
  • The module provides details such as the Root, Anta (Ending), Linga (Gender), Pratipadika (Base), and the type of Krdanta for the analyzed form.
  • Multiple forms and their details are displayed for a given Krdanta form.

4)     Panini (Sanskrit Sandhi module)

The module for Sandhi handling offers the following capabilities:

  • It handles all types of Sandhis, which are the combination of sounds that occur when words come together.
  • The module provides the names of the Sandhis and corresponding sutras, which are the rules governing the Sandhi transformations.
  • It accurately applies the appropriate Sandhi rules based on the input words or phrases.
  • The module ensures the correct formation of Sandhi by following the prescribed sutras and producing the expected combined sounds.

It covers a comprehensive range of Sandhi types and their corresponding sutras to handle various linguistic scenarios.

2. Comprehensive Bibliography of Sanskrit Manuscripts Dealing with Science and Technology

The scientific heritage of India has been remarkably prolific, with a vast collection of manuscripts that is among the largest of any civilization in the world. However, the exact number of these manuscripts remains uncertain due to the lack of precise enumeration.

Estimates range widely, suggesting a figure anywhere between 20,000 to 100,000 manuscripts. Regrettably, there is currently a dearth of detailed and accurate data regarding the precise number, extent, and distribution of these scientific manuscripts within India.

3. Metallurgy in Indian through the Ages

India was at the forefront of metallurgical technology until as recently as the late 18th century. However, later, due to the advent of the colonial era and such other factors, India lost its premier position in this field.

The current project is a humble, but pioneering attempt at unearthing all the information about various aspects of Indian Metallurgy in a comprehensive manner and make it available to the modern world, and also explore options to revive the traditional metallurgical techniques based on their merit. This project includes the following three components that are aimed to fulfil the above objectives:

1. An application-oriented study of the History of metallurgy in India
2. A comprehensive Catalogue of ancient manuscripts & books on Metallurgy & Alchemy
3. An encyclopaedic dictionary on Indian Metallurgy & Alchemy. The current series titled “Heritage of Indian Metallurgy Series” proposes to bring out several volumes in the form of detailed monographs on different individual traditional metals extensively used in India. It will be followed by an exhaustive Volume that shall cover all the general aspects of the heritage of Indian Metallurgy. The encyclopaedic dictionary that is proposed to be brought out shall serve as a very effective tool in interpreting traditional Sanskrit texts on Metallurgy and apply them in today’s context, while the catalogue of ancient manuscripts and books shall give comprehensive information about the extent and extant of the wonderful literature and in-depth knowledge our predecessors possessed in the field of Metallurgy.

Thus the current project proposes to cover the topic of Metallurgy in India in a comprehensive manner that gives a complete and holistic view of this topic along with its contemporary relevance and possible applications.

4. Heritage of Indian Metallurgy- Mercury

Mercury is a metal that has been of great alchemical importance in ancient times. Mercury is a volatile metal which is easily produced by heating cinnabar followed by downward distillation of the mercury vapour. Some of the earliest literary references to the use of mercury distillation comes from Indian treatises such as the Arthashastra of Kautilya dating from the late first millennium BC onwards.

In India, vermillion or cinnabar i.e. mercuric sulphide has had great ritual significance, typically having been used associated with Hinduism. Mercury was also at the heart many alchemical transmutation experiments in Indian alchemical texts which were precursors top the development of chemistry.

5. Heritage of Indian Metallurgy-Gold

Out of all metals known to man in ancient times, gold was perhaps the first metal with which man became acquainted. Indians had, and still continue to have, a great fascination for gold.

Its special attributes, such as pleasing colour, excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance, its malleable and ductile qualities and its limited availability made it an ideal metal for ornaments, decoration, currency and the accumulation of wealth in ancient India.

These characteristics influenced the mind and heart of early Indians so deeply that they made it a symbol of sacredness.

6. Heritage of Indian Metallurgy - Silver

The Origin of noble metals such as Gold and Silver can be traced back to the Vedic times based on the literary evidences available. It is very difficult to bring them to a chronological order, since there is no significant effort in terms of practice has been carried out to corroborate the facts and evidences.

If we want to ascertain the facts and understand the origin, it is better to divide the history of Indian mankind into four periods:

  1. The Vedic Period
  2. The Epic Period
  3. The Samhita Period
  4. The Medieval Period
7. Heritage of Indian Metallurgy - Iron

Iron is an important metal used in a wide range of fields such as construction, machines, electrical products, and agriculture and transportation equipment. The Iron age is a stage in the human history that witnessed the emergence of cities, urban societies, states and empires.

These historical events occurred upon various factors of human societies and physical environments, but it can be stated that iron played an important role not only as a useful tool but also a socio-cultural resource that facilitated societies to develop into more complex ones.

Iron implements have greater strength than other materials contributing not only to the land developments but also to warfare in the human societies.

8. Heritage of Indian Metallurgy - Copper

In the monograph of Iron from the series “Metallurgical heritage of India” abundant evidence has been put forward to show that iron was known to the Aryan Hindus from the earliest Vedic times and as time went on, the Hindus perfected their metallurgical skill in working iron to such an extent that they produced the famous Delhi Pillar in the fifth century A.D, the gigantic beams of Orissa, the Dhar Pillar, the Mount Abu pillar and other notable iron monuments in later centuries.

During the Moghul rule India was still a rich iron producing country as could easily be learnt from the numerous wrought iron guns and cannon of enormous calibre still existing throughout India. India again undoubtedly produced the steel from which the famous Damascus blades were made in the Middle Ages.

9. Heritage of Indian Metallurgy - Zinc

The Vedic literature has beautiful references of metals, for example, Satapatha Brahmana and Atharveda while dealing with immortality speak of gold, which has everlasting lustre and Soma a plant of exhilarating quality – which was also held in high esteem in the society. Such early references to metal are indicative of a long tradition of alchemy in India.

According to the Upnishadic doctrine the five elements (earth, water, fire, air and a ubiquitous all-pervading principle) give rise to or constitute the human body. The Ayurvedic Samhitas deal with the formation of human body and all related issues e.g., physical processes of digestion, disease and so on.

10. Heritage of Indian Metallurgy - Bronze

Bell-metal is composed of four components of copper and one section of vanga, melted together. Bell-metal, accordingly prepared, is commendable in medicines. Kamsya is another essential Misra Loha, an alloy of copper and tin recognized since the time of Samhita Kala.

Charaka used this metal to concoct Vasti netra. It is recognized as Bell Metal or Bronze. According to the descriptions given in Ayurveda Prakasha, there are two types of Kamsya viz. Pushpa and Tailika, only the former being suitable for therapeutic applications.